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Shared Use Mobility

Making First/Last Mile Connections to Transit: How Carsharing and Bikesharing Programs are Improving Connectivity (National Center for Mobility Management, 2013). Looks at how car sharing and bike sharing programs are improving connectivity to transit.

Shared Use Mobility Center. A public-interest organization working to foster collaboration in shared mobility (including bike-sharing, car-sharing, ride-sharing and more) and help connect the growing industry with transit agencies, cities and communities across the nation. Through piloting programs, conducting new research and providing advice and expertise to cities and regions, SUMC hopes to extend the benefits of shared mobility for all.

Bike Sharing


Unraveling the Modal Impacts of Bikesharing (Susan Shaheen and Elliot Martin, Dec 2015). Researchers Susan Shaheen and Elliot Martin surveyed more than 10,000 bike-share riders in Montreal, Toronto, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, and Washington, DC. Like previous surveys have shown, Shaheen and Martin found that a significant number of bike-share users reduce car use. But their main focus was how bike-share affects transit use. The effect of bike-share on transit travel habits varied according to the context. As you might expect, in areas with sparse transit, bike-share offers an important “last-mile” connection. In areas with dense transit networks, bike-share serves as more of a substitute for transit, relieving crowding on packed buses and trains.

Bike-Share Is (Still) Struggling to Reach Poor People Across North America (The Atlantic CityLab, 2014). Provides analysis of 2014 Mineta Institute report (below) vis-a-vis low-income communities.

Public Bikesharing in North America During a Period of Rapid Expansion: Understanding Business Models, Industry Trends and User Impacts (Mineta Transportation Institute, 2014). Evaluates public bikesharing in North America, reviewing the change in travel behavior exhibited by members of different programs in the context of their business models and operational environment. Builds on data from 2012 study (see below).

The Versatility of Cycling: Programs Evolve to Respond to Diverse Customer Needs (National Center for Mobility Management, 2014). Reviews types of bicycle programs that exist, the populations they are serving, the innovations being implemented to expand the numbers of people who bike, and the community partnerships that are making these programs happen.

Bike-Share Planning Guide (Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, 2013). A comprehensive report on bike share’s history and current practice.

Public Bikesharing in North America:Early Operator Understanding and Emerging Trends (Mineta Transportation Institute, 2012). This study examined the growth potential of bikesharing in North America on the basis of a survey of all 15 IT-based public bikesharing systems in operation in the United States and all four programs deployed in Canada as of January 2012.

Bike Sharing in the United States: State of the Practice and Guide to Implementation (Federal Highway Administration, 2012). Presents a snapshot of current municipal bike share systems where local jurisdictions (including cities, counties, etc.) are engaged in the funding, managing, administering and/or permitting of bike share implementing practices.

Transportation Sustainability Research Center (University of California, Berkeley). Describes bike sharing and lists bike sharing organizations in the United States and Canada.

Car Sharing


Los Angeles to Pilot Electric and Hybrid Carsharing for Low Income Neighborhoods (2015). 3-year program, will put 100 hybrid and electric vehicles and more than 100 charging stations in lower-income communities in central Los Angeles. The goal is to recruit as many as 7,000 carsharing users who will take 1,000 privately owned cars off the road, either by selling ones they own or by not buying new ones. That, in turn, could reduce traffic congestion and vehicle emissions. The program is a partnership between the city, the California Air Resources Board and the national Shared-Use Mobility Center, and it will be funded with $1.6 million from the state’s cap-and-trade system. Also see this article.

Indianapolis launches first publicly funded car share program in the country (Sept 2015). The new service, BlueIndy, will feature electric vehicles.


Connecting Low Income People to Opportunity with Shared Mobility (Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, 2014). Discusses bikeshare, carshare, and rideshare opportunities for individuals with limited income as well as barriers and advances with regard to those opportunities.

Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Car sharing in North America (Mineta Transportation Institute, 2010). Presents the results of a study evaluating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission changes that result from individuals participating in a car sharing organization.

Transportation Sustainability Research Center (University of California, Berkeley). Describes carsharing in the United States, Canada, and Europe.

CarSharing.US. Provides a library of resources on car sharing.

Real-Time Ridesharing

Disruptive Innovations in Ridesharing (Center for Urban Transportation Research, 2013). Archived webinar with presentation by Dr. Susan Shaheen (Transportation Sustainability Research Center, University of California, Berkeley) and reactions by a panel on current trends in ridesharing, including real-time ridesharing.

The Sharing Economy: Implications for Ridesharing. Looks at principles that are driving the growth of the sharing economy and how they apply to ridesharing.