Font Size » Large | Small

Biking and Walking

(see “Shared Use Mobility” for bike sharing, real-time ride sharing, and car sharing)



Unraveling the Modal Impacts of Bikesharing (Susan Shaheen and Elliot Martin, Dec 2015). Researchers Susan Shaheen and Elliot Martin surveyed more than 10,000 bike-share riders in Montreal, Toronto, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, and Washington, DC. Like previous surveys have shown, Shaheen and Martin found that a significant number of bike-share users reduce car use. But their main focus was how bike-share affects transit use. The effect of bike-share on transit travel habits varied according to the context. As you might expect, in areas with sparse transit, bike-share offers an important “last-mile” connection. In areas with dense transit networks, bike-share serves as more of a substitute for transit, relieving crowding on packed buses and trains.

NCHRP Report 770: Estimating Bicycling and Walking for Planning and Project Development: A Guidebook (TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 2014). This guidebook offers methods and tools, including a CD-ROM with spreadsheets and a report, to help communities better plan for use of bicycling and walking on their communities.

Perceptions of Bicycle-Friendly Policy Impacts on Accessibility to Transit Services: The First and Last Mile Bridge (Mineta Transportation Institute, 2014). Reports on research to determine the extent to which cycling as a first mile/last mile mode effectively extends the reach of transit in communities.

The Versatility of Cycling: Programs Evolve to Respond to Diverse Customer Needs (National Center for Mobility Management, 2014). Reviews types of bicycle programs that exist, the populations they are serving, the innovations being implemented to expand the numbers of people who bike, and the community partnerships that are making these programs happen.

How to Increase Bicycling for Daily Travel (Active Living Research, 2013). Summarizes the available evidence about strategies for increasing bicycling levels and encouraging bicycling as a mode of transportation. Looks in depth at how improving cycling infrastructure correlates with increased cycling rates. Also presents related policy implications.


Integrating Bikesharing with Public Transportation (Center for Urban Transportation Research, Univ. South Florida, 2012). Webinar presents an overview of some of the key factors that agencies thinking of operating a bikesharing system should consider, such as business models, system planning, and operations.  Speakers also highlighted case studies and provide some recommendations for integrating a bikesharing system with transit.


League of American Bicyclists. Organization that advocates for biking infrastructure and developing and growing the biking community. Offers state-by-state information and contacts as well as resources for planners about infrastructure costs.



The Impact of Neighborhood Walkability on Walking Behavior (CUNY, 2013). Reports on results from the Kaiser Permanente survey on American Attitudes and Behaviors Concerning Walking. Highlights the importance of pedestrian infrastructure to promote walking whether for "utilitarian" (e.g., to get to transit, a job, shopping) or personal enjoyment.


America Walks. A national pedestrian/walkability organization with links to local and regional walking and biking advocacy groups.

Walk Friendly Communities. A national recognition program developed to encourage towns and cities across the United States to establish or recommit to a high priority for supporting safer walking environments; funded by private and public sources.

Complete Streets


National Complete Streets Coalition. Offers training and resources for communities to craft, pass and implement regulations, laws or executive orders that make roadways safe for multiple modes of transportation, including biking, walking and driving. Is funded by a diverse group of organizations.

Safe Routes to School National Partnership. A network of organizations, government agencies and professional groups working to set goals, share best practices, leverage infrastructure and program funding, and advance policy change to help agencies that implement Safe Routes to School programs.

Smart Growth America. An advocacy and technical assistance organization dedicated to real estate development that is centered around urban infill, transit, and complete streets.

Other Websites

National Center for Bicycling and Walking. Provides technical assistance and training for communities that wish to improve and expand the opportunities for walking and biking.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. The umbrella program for and

Federal Highway Administration, “bicycle and pedestrian” web page. Provides resources on the topics of funding, legislation, and guidance.